Although fuel injectors are available in various styles , they can be divided in two specific categories: top feed and side feed fuel injectors. The designation of top feed and side feed indicates how the fuel enters the injector.
Side Feed Fuel Injectors:
Side feed fuel injectors are injectors where the fuel injector’s body is surrounded by fuel and the fuel are fed through a hole or holes in the side of the fuel injector. This category can again be sub divided into two groups: throttle body and manifold side feed fuel injectors.
The benefits of side feed fuel injectors is the fact that the fuel injector and rail combination is more compact and can be installed into a smaller space.
Top Feed Fuel Injectors:
Top feed fuel injectors are fed from the top of the injector and are divided into three basic sub categories. Hose end, normal top feed and direct fuel injection injectors.
Some of the earlier vehicles were equipped with a hose that connects the injector to the fuel rail. These hose ends were connected by means of a hose clamp to the fuel rail side, and a ferrule on the fuel injector side. Some hose end injectors had hose clamps on both the fuel rail and the fuel injector side. Age will cause the fuel hose to become brittle and crack.
An O-ring or seal forms a seal between the fuel injector and the intake manifold.
The top of the injector is pushed into the fuel rail. A fuel injector O-ring forms a seal between the injector and the fuel rail. Sometimes the injector is secured to the fuel rail with an injector clips. The outlet side of the fuel injector is normally located at a specific angle into the intake manifold. An O-ring or Viton rubber seal, forms an air tight seal between the fuel injector outlet and the intake manifold.
In principle a direct fuel injector or GDI injector works the same than normal or manifold fuel injectors and that is where it ends. Direct fuel injectors also make use of a common fuel rail and use a highly specialized O-ring setup to seal between the fuel rail and the injector.
Unlike manifold or throttle body injectors that inject their fuel somewhere in the intake tract, direct fuel injectors inject, under very high pressures, highly atomized fuel directly into the combustion chamber.
As appose to most normal fuel injectors, side feed or top feed, that operate at fuel pressures ranging from 38 Psi up to 100 Psi in the event of some very high performance turbo charged applications, direct fuel injectors operate at fuel pressures ranging from 450 Psi up to 3000 Psi. Due to the environment direct fuel injectors operate in, they are more prone to carbon buildup than normal fuel injectors.
Marine, Inboard and Outboard fuel injectors:
Marine, inboard and outboard fuel injectors are divided in the same categories than automotive fuel injectors. Inboard fuel injectors range from the older throttle body fuel injector style to the latest top feed direct fuel injectors.
Outboard fuel injectors consist of side feed, top feed and direct injection fuel injectors. In addition to the standard injector group there is also the Ficht Ram Fuel injection system and the Evinrude E-TEC injectors.
Optimax air injectors
Some of the outboard and other personal water craft applications make use of the Optimax direct injection system which consist of an Optimax air injector and a fuel injector. In this system fuel is injected via a side feed fuel injector into the air injector which in turn injects additional air with the fuel directly into the combustion chamber.
Due to the environment they operate in, Marine fuel injectors and outboard fuel injectors are prone to become dirty and or clogged. There is really no difference between 99 % of marine or outboard fuel injectors and those used in the automotive, motorcycle or related industries.
Visual Inspection and flow testing is the only sure way to confirm that the fuel injector cleaning process is a success, anything else is only guess work.